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Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Sun Joffe Manifesto

Sun-Joffe Manifesto or the Joint Manifesto of Sun and Joffe was an agreement signed between Sun Yat-sen and Adolph Joffe on January 26, 1923 for the cooperation of Republic of China Kuomintang and Soviet Union. The manifesto asserted that the Soviet system was not suitable for China, and it announced in general terms the willingness of Soviet to cooperate with the KMT in its struggle to unify China at the time.

Adolph Joffe was one of the Soviet delegates at the Genoa Conference in February 1922 and, after the Soviet walkout, was made ambassador to China, as the Soviet troubleshooter (or Kuznetsov) of those days. In 1923, Joffe signed an agreement with Sun Yat-Sen in Shanghai on aid to Kuomintang on the assumption that the latter would cooperate with Chinese Communists, presumably with Lenin's approval (see A Brief Chronology of China Since 1915 in K. S. Karol's China. The Other Communism, New York, Hill and Wang, 1967, ISBN 0-8090-1344-4 (1968 pbk).

Soon after Comintern agents Mikhail Borodin (real name Mikhail Gruzenberg) and Adolph Joffe were sent into Canton to try and redirect Sun Yat-sen towards Bolshevism. Gruzenberg failed to persuade, but managed to secure the entry of communists into the Kuomintang government. The Sun-Joffe Manifesto was drawn up in 1923 to ensure China's collaboration with the Soviet Union.

"The Chinese Marxist Sun Yatsen (Sun Yixian) was an eminent freemason. Even Chiang Kaishek (Jiang Jieshi) co-operated with the Communists in the beginning. He was a 33rd degree freemason (of the Scottish rite) who later broke away from the Communists and became the leader of bourgeois China. The United States demanded of the Japanese to stop fighting the Chinese Communists between 1937 and 1945. General George C. Marshall (1880-1959), then secretary of state, demanded that Chiang Kaishek allow the Communists into his government. Marshall had been President Truman's special envoy in China from 1945 to 1947. He asserted that the Communists were good people but Chiang Kaishek refused to comply. Chiang Kaishek was left without help. Instead, the support for Mao Zedong increased (the aid to the Chinese Communists went via Moscow). On the 31st of January 1949, Communists in American tanks rolled into Beijing and on the 31st of October, the People's Republic of China was officially proclaimed. The civil war ended after having claimed 20 million lives" - Juri Lina.

(note: research The Red Holocaust)